Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate insulations are manufactured by chemical reactions between poly-alcohols and isocyanurates creating or forming tiny air cells. The cells contain refrigerant gases (fluorocarbons) instead of air. The boards are usually double-faced with foil, or sometimes come bonded with an interior or exterior finishing material. The boards must be protected from prolonged exposure to water and sunlight, and if used on the interior must be covered with a fire-resistant material, such as drywall. Due to the relatively high cost of these insulations, use is generally limited to areas which require a high R-value but where space is very limited.
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